BS 476 (various)
Fire test on building materials and structures - see also BS EN 1634-1: 2000
Part 20: 1987 - Method for determination of the fire resistance of elements for construction (general purpose).
Part 22: 1987 - Methods for determination of the fire resistance of non-load bearing elements for construction.
Part 23: 1987 - Methods for determination of the contribution of components to the fire resistance of a structure.
Part 31: - Methods of measuring smoke penetration through door sets and shutter assemblies.
Part 31: Section 31.1: 1983 - Method of measurement under ambient temperature conditions.
BS 1210: 1963 (1998)
Specification for wood screws
BS 1245: 1975 (2007)
Specifications for metal door frames - steel
BS 3621: 2007
BS 3621 British Standard Locks
Specification for thief resistant locks
The standard gives design requirements and methods of test. The lock performances apply to locks fitted to hinged and sliding doors. To comply with
the standard, all locks must have a minimum of 1000 differs except for cylinder locks (see next paragraph). Key markings should be used once only
and should not disclose the combination of the key. The lock case must be hardened, anti-drill.
The new 2004 edition is based upon the new European standard BS EN 12209: 2003, but with broadly similar requirements to the previous 1980
and 1998 editions. The cylinder type locks have tests on the cylinder that have to satisfy BS EN 1303: 2005 classification :1:6:-:0:1:5:1. They must
have a minimum of 30,000 differs, be tested to 100,000 operations and resist a number of other security assessments.
In addition the following tests are applied:
- Neutral salt spray test, to BS EN 1670: 1998 for 96 hours.
- Operation of deadbolt mechanism: The lock is operated slowly by its key to throw and withdraw the deadbolt which must throw a minimum of 20
mm. In addition, operation is tested with a force of 15N applied to the end of the bolt to ensure that the bolt will not push back.
- Operation of the latch mechanism: The mechanism is tested in a full door test rig for 20,000 cycles, with a side load on the latch bolt of 10N.
- Bolt cutting test: The deadbolt is subjected to hand drilling for 5 minutes prior to the side load test (e).
- Strength of lock case: A lateral force of 10,000N is applied to the case for one minute. A pull force of 6,000N is applied to the hook or claw bolts.
- Strength of bolt retention: A force of 6,000N is applied to bolts, hooks or claws for one minute in the direction to which the bolt moves to unlock
(2,000N if the locking plate has an enclosed locking box, but the locking plate must resist higher forces).
- Locked handle/knobs (where applicable): Where lockable handles/knobs are used (e.g. rim night latches) the locked handle/knob must resist a
forcing torque based on the radius of the handle/knob.
- Staples and striking plates: Staples and striking plates are tested by applying a force of 10,000N. Similarly hook and claw bolt strikers are tested
to a pulling force of 6,000N.
BS 4787-1: 1980 (1995)
Internal and external wood door sets, door leaves and frames - dimensions
BS 5378-2: 1980
Safety signs and colours
Part 1: 1980 (1995) - Specification for colour and design- superseded, withdrawn.
Part 2: 1980 (1995) - Specification for colorimetric and photometric properties of materials.
Part 3: 1982 (1995) - Specification for additional signs to those given in BS5378 Part 1.- superseded, withdrawn
BS 5499 (various)
Graphic symbols and signs - safety signs, including fire safety signs
BS 5499-1: 2002
Part 1: - Specification for geometric shapes, colours and layouts. The standard specifies a system of geometric shapes and safety colours for use
with appropriate graphical symbols to produce safety signs.
Table 1 - Geometric shapes, safety colours and contrast colours for safety signs.*
|Geometric shapes||Meaning||Safety colour||Contrast colour||Graphical symbol colour||Examples of use|
|A circle||Prohibition||Red||White||Black||No smoking|
No unauthorised entry
Do not drink
|A circle||Mandatory action||Blue||White||White||Wear safety helmet|
|An equilateral triangle with radiused outer corners||Hazard||Yellow||Black||Black||Hot surface|
|A rectangle (square or rectangle)||Safe condition|
|Green||White||White||First aid room|
|A rectangle (square or rectangle)||Fire equipment||Red||White||White||Fire point|
Wet riser extinguisher
*For the colour and geometric shape of supplementary signs - see Clause 10
Size of signs (other than escape route signs)
There is an information annex which gives details of this data and which includes this table as a guide.
|Maximum viewing distance*||Minimum sign height**||Recommended letter height ***|
in supplementary text sign
|* Calculated using equation A.1 with Z= 120 and rounded down to the nearest whole metre** For the intermediate viewing distance the next largest available sign height should be used*** See 3.6|
Table A.1 - Minimum sign heights recommended for the different maximum viewing distance
BS 5499-2: 1986 (1995) - Specification for self luminous fire safety signs - Proposed for withdrawal.
BS 5499-4: 2000 - Safety signs, including fire safety signs.
Part 4: - Code of practice for escape route signing.
Fire Exit Signs: Handed Right or Left. Depicting a person moving through a door opening. A green figure is preferred for face illuminated signs or
non-illuminated signs. A white figure is preferred for self luminous and internally illuminated signs.
|Progress to right||Progress to left|
|Progress up to the right or Progress forward and across to the right||Progress up to the left or Progress forward and across to the left|
|Progress down to the right||Progress down to the left|
|Progress forward from here|
Progress forward and through from here
Progress forward and up from here
|Progress down from here|
Annex B (information) - Use of arrows to indicate direction of travel.
BS 5499-5: 2002 - Graphic symbols and signs - safety signs, including fire safety signs
Part 5: Signs with specific safety meanings.
Typical warning signs displayed in the standard are illustrated below. The background should be yellow with black triangle and text/symbol.
|"Flammable" standard fire sign||"Danger Electricity" standard fire sign|
Typical prohibition signs are as below. The background is white with red circular band, crossbar and text/symbol..
|"No Smoking" standard fire sign||"No unauthorised persons allowed beyond this point" standard fire sign|
Typical mandatory signs are as below. The shape, a circle, blue background (at least 50%) of the area. The symbol or text to be white.
Letter height 5 mm
Sign height 60 mm
Letter height 5 mm
Sign height 60 mm
Letter height 5 mm
Sign height 60 mm
Letter height 5 mm
Sign height 80 mm
|A.1.05vLetter height 5 mm|
Sign height 80 mm
Safe Condition Signs:
Typical safe condition signs are shown below. Shape should be square or rectangular. The background should be green covering at least 50% of the
area. Symbol/text in white.
|"Push bar to open" sign||"Assembly point" sign|
Fire Equipment Signs:
Typical fire equipment signs are shown below. Shape should be square or rectangular. The background should be red covering at least 50% of the
area. Symbol/text in white.
|"Fire alarm" standard fire sign||"Fire Extinguisher" standard fire sign|
BS 5588 (various)
Fire precautions in the design, construction and use of buildings
BS 5588 - Fire precautions in the design, construction and use of buildings.
BS 5588-0: 1996 - Guide to the fire safety code of practice for particular premises / applications.
BS 5588-1: 1990 - Code of practice for residential buildings.
This standard deals with fire development within a dwelling, house, flat or maisonette. It identifies the starting of a fire by an occupant within a room
such as deep fat frying, smoking in bed, children playing with matches. It discusses the fire development, listing precautions and escape provisions.
All inner rooms should have means of escape other than by the door and any room higher than 4.5 meters above ground level should have at least
two escape routes. It also discusses fire development outside the dwelling and the necessary precautions.
BS 5588-4: 1998 - Smoke control in protected escape routes using pressurisation Specification for the compartmentalization
and ducting to provide a positive air pressure in escape routes to contain smoke and toxic
gasses within fire compartments. Replaced by BS EN 12101-6: 2008
BS 5588-5: 2004 - Code of practice for fire fighting stairways and lifts.
The standard covers the construction of stairs and lifts with additional protection for the use by the fire fighters. It does not cover means of escape
BS 5588-6: 1991 - Code of practice for places of assembly.
Covers buildings for on door entertainment and assembly - excluding sports grounds.
BS 5588-7: 1997 - Code of practice for the inclusion of atria in buildings.
BS 5588-8: 1999 - Code of practice for the means of escape for disabled people.
This code of practice is a guide for building designers and constructors, when they are incorporating into new or existing buildings, measures to ensure
the safe evacuation of disabled people from the buildings, except dwellings, in the event of fire. Recommendations are made for the planning and
protection of escape routes in horizontal and downward (or upward) directions. The provision of refuge lobbies in protected stairwells is recommended.
The correct parking of wheelchairs to allow a clear escape flow on the stairway is highlighted.
BS 5588-9: 1999 - Code of practice for ventilation and air conditioning ductwork.
BS 5588-10: 1991 - Code of practice for shopping complexes and shop units.
Deals with public and non-public areas of the complexes and shop units.
BS 5588-11: 1997 - Code of practice for shops, offices, industrial, storage and similar buildings.
This specification calls for the fire door signs on both sides of fire resisting doors and permits the general use of electro-magnetic release closers on
fire resisting doors.
BS 5839-3: 1988 (various)
Fire detection and alarm systems for buildings
BS 5839-3: 1988 - Fire detection and alarm systems for buildings - specification for automatic release
mechanisms for certain fire protection equipment.
This standard will be modified as it contains conflicts with BS EN 1155. requirements and test methods for automatic release mechanisms that hold
open (or closed) fire doors, fire shutters and fire dampers against the force of the door closing (or opening) device. Release should occur when
manually operated or on receipt of a signal from the fire detector system (including smoke) or a central point of a building or fire alarm. The
performance requirements cover damp, insulation resistance, heat and cold resistance, a corrosion test and durability impact and vibration testing.
The durability test requires the item to withstand repeated slamming, the test being 500 cycles. A further stipulation states that it should not be
possible to remove the protective cover without the use of a tool.
BS 6180: 1999
Code of practice for protective barriers in and about buildings
BS 6180: 1999 - Code of practice for protective barriers in and about buildings.
BS 6462: 1985 (2007)
Specification for mechanical performance of peg type casement stays and face fixed wedge action fasteners.
BS 6462: 1985 (2007) - Specification for mechanical performance of peg type casement stays and face fixed wedge action fasteners.
The specification is limited to peg type stays and wedge action fasteners for use on top or side hung windows up to 1m sq in area. The standard is
a pure performance standard and specifies loading which simulates pulling the window closed via a stay bar around the peg. It also has a pull test.
When the staybar rests on the pegs, a force is applied to pull the joint away from the stay which simulates pressure differentials in buildings similar to
those generated by storms. Loads are also specified to check resistance to vertical bending of the stay, e.g. over window ledge. Wedging forces are
specified for the fastener as well as a strength test for the fastener handle. A wear test is also required of fasteners to test their durabilty in use. 20,000
cycles are specified.
BS 7036: 1996 (various)
Code of practice for safety at power operated doors for pedestrian use
BS 7036-1/5: 1996 - Code of practice for safety at power operated doors for pedestrian use.
This code of practice provides guidance on the provision and installation of safety devices for automatic power operated pedestrian door systems
whether swing or sliding which do not exceed 2000 mm in width. Doors exceeding 2000 mm in width may require additional safety features. It is
recommended that activators should operate on low voltage with a maximum of 50V AC or 24V DC. Safety measures covered are activator
mats/safety detection mats, motion sensors (radar or infrared) / presence sensors, the positioning of manually activated switches and safety barriers.
The use of signs is discussed including the mandatory 'keep clear' sign which has a blue background / white letters. In some instances an automatic
sliding door may be required to have a beak-out emergency escape system. In this event a safe condition sign should be used 'In Emergency Push
To Open' which should have green background with white letters.
BS 7386: (1997)
Specification for draught strips for the draught control of existing doors and windows in housing (including test methods)
BS 7386: 1997 (2007) - Specification for draught strips for the draught control of existing doors and windows
in housing (including test methods).
BS 7950: 1997
Specification for enhanced security performance of casement and tilt/turn windows in domestic applications.
BS 7950: 1997 - Specification for enhanced security performance of casement and tilt/turn windows in
BS 8213-1: 2004 (various)
Windows, doors and roof lights
BS 8213-1: 2004 - Windows, doors and roof lights.
This part of the standard code of practice for the safety in use and during cleaning of windows and doors (including guidance on cleaning materials
BS 8214: 1990
Code of practice for fire door assemblies with non-metallic leaves
BS 8214: 1990 - Code of practice for fire door assemblies with non-metallic leaves.
The British Standard gives guidance for Fire Door design, construction and installation with non-metallic leaves. The recommendations given are
restricted to doors designed to provide fire resistance ratings up to, and including, 2 hours. These ratings are in respect of tests conducted in
accordance with the conditions specified in BS 476 : Part 8 and Part 22. The role and use of Fire Doors is explained, making reference to BS 5588
: Parts 1,2 and 3. Design and manufacturing qualities of Fire Doors are covered in detail. Intumescent seals and smoke seals are explained, along
with the use of other intumescent materials which help in maintaining integrity. Pressure forming seals are discussed against the voluminously
It is stressed that the types should not be mixed and care should also be taken with rebated meeting stiles which pressure forming seals can spring
Ironmongery and the fitting thereof, is discussed, categorising the essential and non-essential ironmongery items. The Standard recommends that
rising butt hinges should not be fitted to Fire Doors.
Door closers should be fitted to all Fire Doors and be capable of closing the leaf, overcoming any latch or seals that are present.
BS 8220 (various)
Guide for the security of buildings against crime
BS 8220 - Guide for the security of buildings against crime.
Part 1: 2000 - Dwellings
Part 2: 1995 - Offices and shops
Part 3: 2004 - Warehouse and distribution units
BS 8300: 2001
Code of practice for design of buildings and their approaches to meet the needs of disabled people
BS 8300 : 2001 - Supplemented by and amending Part 4 DDA - design of buildings and their approaches to meet the needs of disabled people '- code of practice.
The DDT (Disability Discrimination Act) of 1995 has been introduced in a number of stages since Dec. 1996. Since Oct. 1999 it has required "service
providers" to take reasonable steps to change practices, provide auxiliary aids and remove physical barriers to make the use of their facility more
acceptable for disabled users. Since Oct. 2004 they have had to "make reasonable adjustments to the physical features of their premises, if it is
impossible or difficult for disabled people to access their service" I.e. in theory at least, all buildings, new and existing, are having to be upgraded.
What has been missing up to now, is some guidance as to "what is reasonable?". The BS 8300 Code of Practice gives clear guidance on layouts,
sizes, fittings etc, for almost all types of buildings except those which are intended for use exclusively by disabled people. It does not make specific
recommendations relating to the use of buildings by children.
Basically it gives guidance and provides a code of practice as to whet is"reasonable" - it provides some specific information and some general
guidance. The Building Regulations are regularly updated and 2004 saw an update to the Approved Document to Part "M" of the Regulations
covering England and Wales. This covers "Access to and use of buildings". The BS 8300 Amd1 and a “FAQ” sheet from the ODPM (Office of the
Deputy Prime Minister) in relation to Approved Document M now align both documents.
BS 8424: 2004
Pull handles - requirements and test methods
BS 8424: 2004 - Pull handles - requirements and test methods.
This standard specifies the performance requirements and testing methods for door mounted pull handles incorporating one fixing point or more. It
incorporates the same classification system used in the European Standards for Building Hardware.
Digit 1 - Category of use
Grade 1: Light duty
Grade 2: Medium duty
Grade 3: Heavy duty
Grade 4: Severe duty
Digit 2 - Durability
Grade 2: 5000 test cycle
Digit 3 - Test door mass
There is now classification.
Digit 4 - Fire resistance
Two categories of fire resistance are identified:
Grade 0: Not approved for use on fire/smoke door assemblies
Grade 1: Suitable for use on fire/smoke door assemblies, subject to satisfactory assessment of the contribution of the emergency device to the fire
resistance of specified fire/smoke door assemblies
Digit 5 - Safety
Grade 1: Safe
Digit 6 - Corrosion resistance
Classification to Clause 4 of BS EN 1670: 1998
Grade 0: No defined corrosion resistance
Grade 1: Low resistance
Grade 2: Moderate resistance
Grade 3: High resistance
Grade 4: Very high resistance
The following classification denotes a pull handle, suitable for sever duty, non fire door use, with a high resistance to corrosion. :4:2:-:0:1:4
BS 8621: 2007
Thief resistant lock assemblies - keyless egress
BS 8621: 2007 - Thief resistant lock assemblies - keyless egress.
Exactly the same as BS 3621 except that the locks are classified as providing keyless egress at all times and are therefore suitable for doors which
have to be free from fastenings on the inside.
(Produced or shown by kind permission of Häfele UK, information given correct at time of print Aug 2008)